The fourth Population and Housing Census in Rwanda, was conducted in August 2012. The Census operation was coordinated by the National Census Commission. Various census technical and administrative structures were put in place to ensure a successful census operation. The entire census activities were organised into three phases. In phase I, preparatory activities started with cartography and mapping, development of census tools, instruments and methodology. The Pilot Census marked the completion of this phase. In Phase II, census enumeration was implemented followed by a Post Enumeration Survey. Phase III was concerned with data processing, validation, tabulation and the release of the final census results.