Population and Housing Census is the process of systematically obtaining and recording demographic, economic and social data, at a specified time, of the country's population. Compared to other surveys, in which information is collected from only a small sample of the residents, and from that conclusions are reached regarding the general population, the Population and Housing Census gets data from the entire population.

In most countries in the world, Rwanda included, a Population and Housing Census is conducted once every ten years.

Entire population